".. (from Arabic:الكيم Latinized: chem (kēme), meaning "earth") is the science concerned with the composition, behavior, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. It is a physical science for studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes. Modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy and began to develop into its modern form through the 10th Century Arab world and following the chemical revolution (1773).
Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the energy related studies of chemical systems at macro, molecular and submolecular scales; analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry the chemical study of the nervous system (see subdisciplines).
.. The Periodic Table
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li, and it has the atomic number 3. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of petroleum. When cut open, lithium exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with oxygen quickly turns it back to a dull silvery gray color. Lithium in its elemental state is highly flammable...
Trace amounts of lithium are present in the oceans and in some organisms, though the element serves no apparent vital biological function in humans. The lithium ion Li+ administered as any of several lithium salts has proved to be useful as a mood stabilizing drug due to neurological effects of the ion in the human body. .."
Lithium Side Effects, from drugs.com ".. Mild hand tremor; mild thirst; temporary, mild nausea and general discomfort at the beginning of treatment.
Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur when using Lithium:
Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); blurred vision; confusion; diarrhea; drowsiness; excessive weight gain; fainting; giddiness; inability to control the bladder or bowels; increased thirst; increased or decreased urination; involuntary twitching or muscle movements; loss of consciousness; loss of coordination; muscle weakness; persistent headache; persistent or severe nausea; ringing in the ears; seizures; slow or irregular heartbeat; slurred speech; swelling of the ankles or wrists; unsteadiness; vision changes; vomiting.
ATSDR - ToxFAQs™ - Manganese ****, from atsdr.cdc.gov "
Manganese is a trace element and eating a small amount from food or water is needed to stay healthy. At high levels, it can cause damage to the brain, liver, kidneys ..."
"Why is exposure to mercury a concern?
...Exposure to one chemical with mercury, i.e., methylmercury, has been shown to pose a variety of health risks to humans. Extremely high levels, such as that observed in poisoning episodes in Japan and Iraq has caused neurological damage and death. The fetus is considered more sensitive to health effects of methylmercury than adults. In recent years some studies have found adverse health effects of methylmercury at levels previously thought to be safe. Other studies, however, have shown conflicting results.
It is important to note that the preservative thimerosal contains ethylmercury, a related though distinct chemical from methylmercury. Moreover, recent studies in animal models exposed to thimerosal containing vaccines or oral methylmercury suggest that methylmercury may not be a suitable reference to assess the risk from exposure to thimerosal (Burbacher et al, 2005). In addition, data from studies in human infants that were given routine immunizations with thimerosal-containing vaccines showed that mercury levels in blood and urine were uniformly below safety guidelines for methyl mercury and that unlike methylmercury excretory profiles, infants excreted significant amounts of mercury in stool after thimerosal (ethylmercury) exposure, thus removing mercury from their bodies (Pichichero ME, et al, 2002)...
*see GoodnewsEverybody.com Science: Biology, Animals, Biological Warfare, etc...
Stevens County Emergency Management warns residents in area to stay put, close doors and windows "An anhydrous ammonia leak north of Morris on Highway 9 has led Stevens County Emergency Management officials to urge residents in the area to stay indoors.
County officials warned residents of the leak late Monday night.
Residents are asked to stay where they are, to close windows and doors and await further updates.
Further updates will be available at www.morrissuntribune.com as they are made available.
"MORRIS, Minn. - An ammonia leak has authorities urging residents in northern Morris to evacuate the area immediately.
The Stevens County Sheriff's Office says the leak is affecting houses from East 7th Street North to Highway 28 East, all the way to Highway 59.
Authorities say if you live in this area, you should head to the University of Minnesota-Morris PE bulding immediately.
The lack of wind is causing the ammonia to remain in one place as opposed to a windy night, reaching dangerous levels. A farming accident initially caused the leak.
If you have any questions regarding the leak, call the Stevens County Sheriff's Office at 320-589-2141
Written for the web by Megan Brown and Tony Seeman
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Morris Residents Return Home After Ammonia Leak, Updated at: 10/19/2010 8:38 PM | KSAX.com
By: Megan Brown and Tony Seeman "MORRIS, Minn. - About 250 people were evacuated from their homes in Morris Monday around 10 p.m. after an ammonia leak at a nearby farm was reported.
The ammonia is handled under high pressure and used as a fertilizer. When pressure is released it converts to gas and can cause severe chemical burns.
In addition to the evacuation, the University of Minnesota sent an alert advising students at the Morris campus to remain inside. Evacuees were sent to a university building.
Residents were allowed to return to their homes about 1 a.m. Tuesday after the gas dissipated.
The Stevens County Sheriff's Office said the leak affected houses from East 7th Street North to Highway 28 East, all the way to Highway 59.
The lack of wind caused the ammonia to remain in one place as opposed to a windy night and reached dangerous levels. ... As Many as 300 Evacuated in Morris Monday Night
October 19 kmrskkok.com "
A farming accident led to the evacuation of up to 300 hundred people in Morris late Monday (last) night.
Morris Police recieved a call of an anhydrous ammonia leak in a farm field just north of Morris on Highway 9 at about 10:00.
Police Chief Jim Beauregard says there was no wind to disperse the cloud of ammonia which lead to the evacuation.
Beauregard said there were no injuries and everyone cooperated with the evacuation and stayed away from the affected area.
The all clear was given about three hours later for residents to safely return to their homes. At one point, Highways 9 and 28 were both closed.
Beauregard adds, because we live in a farming community the police department trains for this kind of situation. Services are coordinated between police, fire, university, and hazmat teams to respond to an emergency like this.
Anhydrous ammonia can cause permanent lung damage or death if inhale in sufficient concentrations." Ammonia spill emphasizes need for Instant Alert sign-up, By Tom Larson
Sun Tribune Published October 19 2010 morrissuntribune.com "When a community is hit with an emergency situation, be it a tornado or a hazardous chemical spill, residents for years have turned on their radios for information.
But what if there's no way for the radio station to bring people information and updates?
That was the situation Monday night and early Tuesday morning, after an anhydrous ammonia leak forced the evacuation of about 250 people from areas -- including the radio station -- near the spill north of Morris along Highway 9.
And that's why Stevens County residents are encouraged to sign up to receive emergency Instant Alerts from the county via home phone, cell phone and email, said Morris Chief of Police Jim Beauregard.
"That threw a monkey wrench into it," Beauregard said. "That's why it's important for people to sign up for the Instant Alerts."
The public can sign up for the alerts at the Web site http://www.envoyprofiles.com/STEVENSCOUNTY/, or by stopping at the Sheriff's Office and police station on Atlantic Avenue.
In the event of an emergency, the county's system sends out information and updates to phones or by email.
The spill occurred at about 9:55 p.m. Monday night, and a plume of anhydrous ammonia gas hung in the air near the spill and traveled slowly along Highway 28. It did not dissipate quickly because of a lack of wind.
The KMRS/KKOK radio station, which is located along Highway 28, had to be evacuated, and efforts to direct listeners to the University of Minnesota, Morris station, KUMM, and a station in Benson for updates on the spill failed because no on-air personnel were available at those stations, Beauregard said.
Law enforcement had to go door-to-door to alert residents affected by the plume, he said.
"Communication is always an issue in all these situations," Beauregard said. "For years, when something happens, we've been trained to go to the radio. When that fails, we go to back-up systems, but we have limited resources. You can't knock on every single door."
The residents evacuated were taken to shelter at the Regional Fitness Center, the area was closed off and traffic diverted. At about 1 a.m., people were allowed to return to their residences, and air quality was monitored in the area until 3 a.m. There were no reports of injuries from the spill or gas plume, Beauregard said.
Emergency management and law enforcement are working with the Instant Alert company to better pinpoint the alerts to affected residents, but the public should sign up regardless, Beauregard said.
"We're trying to fine tune it," he said, "but this was a better-safe-than-sorry situation, and I'd want to get that phone call."
The public "did a great job" during the evacuation and were patient with law enforcement and emergency personnel throughout the ordeal, Beauregard said, but having more people receiving the Instant Alerts is critical.
"It could have been a lot worse," he said."
Anhydrous Ammonia: Managing The Risks
AE-1149 (Revised), August 2008
John Nowatzki, Ag Machine Systems Specialist ag.ndsu.edu "
More anhydrous ammonia is used as fertilizer in North Dakota than any other nitrogen fertilizer source. Anhydrous ammonia is classified as a hazardous substance. Most accidents with anhydrous ammonia are due to uncontrolled releases. Few problems occur when the ammonia is being handled and applied as intended. Most uncontrolled releases are due to improper procedures, careless or untrained workers, or faulty equipment. Protective equipment is required by law to be available where anhydrous ammonia is handled or applied. Wearing protective equipment greatly reduces the chance of injury from an ammonia release. Countless tons of anhydrous ammonia are applied every crop year without problems; safe procedures and good-quality equipment do work.
Anhydrous ammonia has the potential to be one of the most dangerous chemicals used in agriculture today. It is used and stored under high pressures, which requires specially designed and well-maintained equipment. Those who work with anhydrous ammonia must be trained to follow exact procedures in handling it.
Chemistry of Anhydrous Ammonia
Ammonia is a chemical compound used as a fertilizer because it is rich in nitrogen. Its chemical formula is NH3, which means that it consists of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen per molecule. Because the atomic weights of nitrogen and hydrogen are not the same, the weight ratio is 82.5 percent nitrogen to 17.5 percent hydrogen. Anhydrous means the ammonia is without water. This distinguishes it from ammonia/water solutions.
Characteristics of Anhydrous Ammonia
Anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions and has a very characteristic odor. The odor is the strongest safety feature of the product. At a concentration of only 50 parts per million (ppm), one sniff tells what is in the air. Normally, the odor will drive a person away from the area. A concentration of more than 5,000 ppm will disable a person so that escape is impossible and suffocation results. ....
Anhydrous ammonia is heavier than air and will settle in the low areas of the surrounding landscape, such as road ditches, sloughs and valleys. People in threatened areas must be warned of the release and advised to leave the area until the release has been controlled and the area is considered safe for re-entry. These decisions should be made by emergency personnel, such as a local fire department. Animals and livestock should be removed from the threatened area after people have been taken care of first. Most animals will do their best to leave the area long before ammonia concentrations become strong enough to cause them much discomfort.
Anhydrous Ammonia safety video preview
"ALEXANDRIA, Minn. (KSAX) - A crash involving a semi and a MnDOT truck closed off I-94 near Alexandria Monday.
Authorities were called to the scene on I-94 westbound, above Highway 114 at 1:30 p.m. Monday.
The semi, carrying hydrochloric acid, rear-ended the MnDOT truck, where crews were working on the bridge.
Authorities said the acid spilled onto the roadway, and pollution control responded to the scene.
No one was injured.
Authorities are investigating the cause of the crash. Police said they expect one lane to be closed throughout the night Monday.
Written for the web by Joe Nelson.
"Includes original footage now featured on "What In The World Are They Spraying". Chemtrails Are: Persistent lines of chemical-infused aerosol spray dispersals from typically unmarked planes which are now seen in the sky all over the world. Unlike normal jet contrails formed from water vapor, chemtrails spread to form a thick blanket of cloud cover, held together by polymer fibers until they reach the ground, contaminating crops, water supplies and humans with radioactive soft metals and dessicated red blood cells which contain active human pathogens.
Researchers discovered 6 different agendas or motives for these operations, some of which may overlap: environment or climate changes, biological, military purposes, electromagnetic, geophysical or global effects, and exotic propulsion systems. Analysis of material from chemtrails has revealed magnetic salts, including the toxic substance of barium. Fibers, submicron in size, have also been detected, and they bear a physical similarity to the filaments found in Morgellons Disease.
This video was originally intended to include a Part II version which would have included interviews with Chemtrail debunkers. There are good references to chemtrail debunker websites on Wikipedia including interviews with NASA's Patrick Minnis."
Chem-trails on the Discovery Channel part 1 of 3
GoodnewsEverybody.com Health, Wellness, Medical Issues, etc...
Government ADMITS secretly SPRAYING POISON on us!!! Also admit secret tests hundreds of times!
*see GoodnewsUSA.info: Military & 2001 Space Preservatio Act-Law Document Barium
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Precautions
Soluble barium compounds are poisonous. At low doses, barium acts as a muscle stimulant, whereas higher doses affect the nervous system, causing cardiac irregularities, tremors, weakness, anxiety, dyspnea and paralysis. This may be due to its ability to block potassium ion channels which are critical to the proper function of the nervous system. However, individual responses to barium salts vary widely, with some being able to handle barium nitrate casually without problems, and others becoming ill from working with it in small quantities. Barium acetate was used by Marie Robards to poison her father in Texas in 1993. She was tried and convicted in 1996.[...
=>New Jersey,New York
CHEMTRAILS ARE POISON AND HAVE KILLED BILLIONS OF BIRDS
Look up where in the United States the Pentagon keeps its atomic weaponry. "The United States currently has 5,113 atomic warheads deployed in silos, bombers, and submarines, mostly in the continental US. That doesn't include thousands of "zombies" being kept in reserve and a backlog of more than 3,000 warheads awaiting dismantlement. Meanwhile, we're telling the world that we're on the path to disarmament, even as we're spending more on the nuclear weapons complex than we did during the Cold War.
Zoom in on the map below to find the warheads near you as well as the nuclear labs that maintain the stockpile and develop the next generation of atomic weaponry. (For reference, we've also included the locations of the nation's civilian nuclear power plants.*)
Note: This map was made with 100% unclassified, public information. Even the military doesn't hide where it keeps its missiles and bombers. See links to sourcing below..."
"SALMON, Idaho (Reuters) - A sodium fire erupted on Friday at a U.S. Nuclear laboratory in Idaho, burning one worker, but the incident posed no risk to the public, the lab said.
The incident was the second this week at the sprawling facility. Earlier this week, at least six workers were contaminated by low-level plutonium radiation and 11 others were exposed following a mishap at the lab.
The chemical fire on Friday broke out in a building adjacent to a decommissioned, experimental reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's sprawling Idaho National Laboratory that is cooled by sodium, lab spokeswoman Sara Prentice said.
The fire may have been caused by a sodium reaction, Prentice said.
The unidentified employee, who works for the private Idaho Cleanup Project, was taken to Eastern Idaho Regional Medical Center in Idaho Falls for evaluation of burns, the lab said in a written statement.
Hospital spokeswoman Cindy Smith-Putnam said she could not comment on the worker's condition due to patient privacy laws.
Ten other employees were evaluated at the scene by medical personnel and released, the lab said. Others at the complex were told to remain in their buildings as a precautionary measure, but there was no evidence of continued reaction or fire.
"Not only is there no risk to the public, there is no contamination or radiological involvement," Prentice said.
The lab said fire crews had responded to the fire at the Sodium Boiler Building, which is owned and operated by the private Idaho Cleanup Project.
The Idaho Cleanup Project is a private company contracted with the Department of Energy to clean up waste at the site and workers there were involved in demolition and dismantlement activities, the lab said.
According to its website, the Idaho Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Labs involves the safe, environmental cleanup of waste at the site generated by World War II-era conventional weapons testing, government-owned research and defense reactors, laboratory research, and defense missions at other Department of Energy sites.
The Idaho Cleanup Project said in press release issued in March that sodium "can ignite on contact with air and react violently with water, producing hydrogen, making preparations and treatment a significant safety concern."
That first incident earlier this week took place inside a deactivated reactor housing in a facility used for remotely handling, processing and examining spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and other irradiated materials, the lab has said.
Some 6,000 employees and contractors work at the Idaho National Laboratory, the Energy Department's leading facility for nuclear reactor technology, which is located about 40 miles west of Idaho Falls.
It opened in 1949 as a national reactor testing station.
(Additional reporting by Mary Slosson. Writing by Dan Whitcomb. Editing by Greg McCune)
"..Needed to study Scripture
Boyle was a devout Christian and an enthusiastic student of the Bible. In fact, he felt a great need to study the Scriptures in their original languages to gain greater understanding of them. He even paid for and supervised the translation and publication of the Bible in Gaelic.
In the year before his death in 1691, Boyle published an important work he called The Christian Virtuoso. In this book he explained that the study and dominion of nature is a duty given to man by God. His basis for this was the command given in Genesis 1:28, where God the Creator blessed the first man and woman and told them to be fruitful and multiply, to fill the Earth and subdue it, and to rule over the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the Earth.
In his lectures and many writings, Robert Boyle showed that science and faith in God can exist side by side. He praised his Creator for all the scientific discoveries he had made, and urged others to do likewise. He recognized that the universe works in accordance with the laws of nature which God established for its order and control. As a powerful Christian apologist, he established in his will provision for the Boyle Lectures for the defence of Christianity. He strongly supported missionary work, and gave great support to societies which promoted the Gospel.
Modern chemistry owes enormous gratitude to the work and writings of Robert Boyle—a creation scientist whose love of God’s truth led him to overcome the chief errors of alchemical theory which were hindering the development of truly scientific chemistry....
Case closed: FBI says scientist was anthrax killer news.yahoo.com
FILE - In this Oct. 9, 2001 file photo, FBI agents with the special AP – FILE - In this Oct. 9, 2001 file photo, FBI agents with the special investigation unit use a dolly to --
By DEVLIN BARRETT and PETE YOST, Associated Press Writers Devlin Barrett And Pete Yost, Associated Press Writers – 36 mins ago (Friday, February 19th of 2010)
WASHINGTON – The FBI sought to close the book on its long, frustrating hunt for the killer behind the 2001 anthrax letters Friday, formally ending its investigation and concluding a mentally unhinged scientist was responsible for killing five people and unnerving Americans nationwide.
After years of false leads, no arrests and public criticism, the FBI and Justice Department said Dr. Bruce Ivins, a government researcher, acted alone.
Ivins killed himself in 2008 as prosecutors prepared to indict him for the attacks. He had denied involvement, and his family and some friends have continued to insist he was innocent.
Investigators had tried earlier to build a case against biowarfare expert Steven Hatfill, who had worked for a time in the same military lab as Ivins, but ultimately turned away from that theory and had to pay him a multimillion-dollar settlement.
Many details of the case have already been disclosed, but newly released FBI documents paint a fuller portrait of Ivins as a troubled doctor whose life's work was teetering toward failure at the time the letters laced with anthrax were sent. As the U.S. responded to the mailings, that work was given new importance by the government, and he was even honored for his efforts on anthrax.
The documents also describe what investigators say was Ivins' bizarre, decades-long obsession with a sorority. The anthrax letters were dropped in a mailbox near the sorority's office in Princeton, N.J.
The letters were sent to lawmakers and news organizations as the nation reeled in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Postal facilities, U.S. Capitol buildings and private offices were shut for inspection and cleaning by workers in hazardous materials "space suits" from Florida to Washington to New York and beyond.
In closing the case, officials also released reams of evidence, and a 92-page summary of their findings.
To the FBI's critics, the mountain of new documents could not paper over what they say are glaring holes in the case.
"The evidence the FBI produced would not, I think, stand up in court," said Rep. Rush Holt, a Democrat whose New Jersey district includes the Princeton mailbox used in the attacks. "But because their prime suspect is dead and they're not going to court, they seem satisfied with barely a circumstantial case."
Ivins' lawyer Paul Kemp said he saw nothing new in the findings. "All they have confirmed is that they suspected him belatedly after finding out he had psychological problems," he said. "Sadly they substitute that for proof."
Authorities say Ivins' death capped a years-long cat-and-mouse game with investigators, in which he repeatedly offered to help the FBI catch the killer, cast suspicion on his colleagues and tried numerous forms of subterfuge.
After the attacks, the FBI relied heavily on Ivins' help, according to the documents, and the scientist offered agents his notebooks, his office and his e-mail. FBI agents found him easygoing and funny. He had kittens on his computer screen saver and gave one FBI agent a jar of syrup for a gift.
He passed a polygraph in connection with the probe in 2002, but investigators learned years later that he had been prescribed psychotropic medications at the time, and examiners who reassessed the results concluded he exhibited classic signs of the use of countermeasures to pass the test.
Authorities say Ivins nursed a secret fascination with the sorority Kappa Kappa Gamma that dated back decades, and at one point years ago, they say, he stalked a member of the sorority.
The new documents also present a novel theory why the anthrax notes featured block writing that highlighted specific letters within words.
Investigators believe Ivins' use of the letters was part of a secret code that had two possible meanings: pointing to a colleague or stating a specific dislike of New York. Two of the letters were sent to New York — one to the New York Post, another to NBC's then-anchor Tom Brokaw.
The anthrax case was one of the most vexing and costly investigations in U.S. history. Officials announced in 2008 that the lone suspect was Ivins. The move Friday seals that preliminary investigative conclusion.
The spores killed five people: two postal workers in Washington, D.C., a New York City hospital worker, a Florida photo editor and a 94-year-old Connecticut woman who had no known contact with any of the poisoned letters. Seventeen other people were sickened.
In 2005, investigators began to focus more directly on Ivins.
Three years later, the bureau announced that the mystery had been solved but the suspect was dead.
Authorities said that in the days before the mailings, Ivins had logged unusual hours alone in his lab at the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Md.
As the FBI closed in on Ivins, the 62-year-old microbiologist took a fatal overdose of Tylenol, dying on July 29, 2008. After Ivins' suicide, FBI Director Robert Mueller said the investigation found he was the culprit, and prosecutors said they were confident he acted alone.
Skeptics — including prominent lawmakers — pointed to the bureau's long, misguided pursuit of Hatfill, who had worked in the Ft. Detrick lab from 1997 to 1999, and noted there was no evidence suggesting Ivins was ever in New Jersey when the letters were mailed there.
At the urging of lawmakers, the National Academy of Sciences has begun a review of the FBI's scientific methods in tracing the particular strain of anthrax used in the mailings to samples Ivins had at his Fort Detrick lab.
Associated Press writer Matt Apuzzo contributed to this report.
"Autism and environmental health experts called for greater scrutiny of chemicals found in the environment, which could potentially lead to autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, in a conference call Tuesday.
"We live, breathe and start our families in the presence of toxic chemical mixtures and constant low-level toxic exposures, in stark contrast to the way chemicals are tested for safety," said Donna Ferullo, Director of Program Research at The Autism Society.
"Lead, mercury, and other neurotoxic chemicals have a profound effect on the developing brain at levels that were once thought to be safe," she said.
Autism spectrum disorders are being diagnosed at unprecedented rates, partly because of improved diagnostic tools and criteria, but also a host of other factors including what mothers-to-be are exposed and consequently their unborn children too, said Irva Hertz-Piccotto, Chief of the Division of Environmental Health at the University of California, Davis, and a faculty member at the Mind Institute.
About 1 in 110 children in the United States has autism, a group of developmental disorders that lead to impairments in behavior, communication and socialization. The cost of autism is staggering: $3.2 million for the care of a person with autism throughout his or her life; behavioral therapy can be hard to come by and be very limited, and most medications don't help much.
Studies have strongly suggested a genetic component in the cause of autism, but it's becoming clear that genetics alone isn't the whole story; there could be interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental chemicals.
Recent research from her group, appearing in the journal Epidemiology, showed that prenatal vitamins taken prior to conception seem to interact with certain metabolizing genes that are inherited. Those women who did not take the vitamins, and had the high-risk genotypes, were more likely to have a child with autism. Still, this was a small study limited in scope, and more research should be done to confirm these findings.
The central nervous system of the fetus is sensitive to a wide range of chemicals, Hertz-Piccotto said. Hormones, such as estrogens and androgens, are essential for proper brain development. Endocrine-disrupting compounds need more research, she said. Flame-retardant chemicals called PBDEs interfere with the body's hormones. Even though many of them are no longer used in manufacturing, they can hang around in the environment and the human body for a long time. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is aware of concerns about these chemicals and is working on accessing substitutions (see the action plan).
Bisphenol A, present in plastic food packaging and water bottles, among other products, is another big concern, she said, because it could interfere with the body's natural estrogen system; antimicrobials added to soaps, toothpaste and other products can artificially enhance androgenic activity.
"That means that they could potentially play a role in autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders," Hertz-Piccotto said.
Moreover, many children with autism spectrum disorders have abnormal immune responses. The chemical messengers in the immune system interact with the receptors in the brain, so chemicals that affect immunity could also be implicated in autism.
Thyroid dysfunction is common in children with autism that psychiatrist Dr. Suruchi Chandra sees, even though that's not part of the classical symptoms of the condition. She believes the abnormalities are due to the thyroid hormone disruptors such as BPA and flame retardants.
"Thyroid hormone is critical for brain development in early life, and even small alterations in hormone levels can have serious consequences; long-lasting and perhaps irreversible consequences in terms of brain function," she said.
Air pollution from traffic and certain pesticides have also been shown to have associations with autism, studies have shown. Maternal conditions could partially result from chemicals in the environment.
Andy Igrejas, National Campaign Director of Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families, called for an update of the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act. Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) has proposed a stricter version that would require all industrial chemicals to be tested for safety.
ST. LOUIS (AP) — Doris Spates was a baby when her father died inexplicably in 1955. She has watched four siblings die of cancer, and she survived cervical cancer.
After learning that the Army conducted secret chemical testing in her impoverished St. Louis neighborhood at the height of the Cold War, she wonders if her own government is to blame.
In the mid-1950s, and again a decade later, the Army used motorized blowers atop a low-income housing high-rise, at schools and from the backs of station wagons to send a potentially dangerous compound into the already-hazy air in predominantly black areas of St. Louis.
Local officials were told at the time that the government was testing a smoke screen that could shield St. Louis from aerial observation in case the Russians attacked.
But in 1994, the government said the tests were part of a biological weapons program and St. Louis was chosen because it bore some resemblance to Russian cities that the U.S. might attack. The material being sprayed was zinc cadmium sulfide, a fine fluorescent powder.
Now, new research is raising greater concern about the implications of those tests. St. Louis Community College-Meramec sociology professor Lisa Martino-Taylor's research has raised the possibility that the Army performed radiation testing by mixing radioactive particles with the zinc cadmium sulfide, though she concedes there is no direct proof.
But her report, released late last month, was troubling enough that both U.S. senators from Missouri wrote to Army Secretary John McHugh demanding answers.
Aides to Sens. Claire McCaskill and Roy Blunt said they have received no response. Army spokesman Dave Foster declined an interview request from The Associated Press, saying the Army would first respond to the senators.
The area of the secret testing is described by the Army in documents obtained by Martino-Taylor through a Freedom of Information Act request as "a densely populated slum district." About three-quarters of the residents were black.
Spates, now 57 and retired, was born in 1955, delivered inside her family's apartment on the top floor of the since-demolished Pruitt-Igoe housing development in north St. Louis. Her family didn't know that on the roof, the Army was intentionally spewing hundreds of pounds of zinc cadmium sulfide into the air.
Three months after her birth, her father died. Four of her 11 siblings succumbed to cancer at relatively young ages.
"I'm wondering if it got into our system," Spates said. "When I heard about the testing, I thought, 'Oh my God. If they did that, there's no telling what else they're hiding.'"
Mary Helen Brindell wonders, too. Now 68, her family lived in a working-class mixed-race neighborhood where spraying occurred.
The Army has admitted only to using blowers to spread the chemical, but Brindell recalled a summer day playing baseball with other kids in the street when a squadron of green Army planes flew close to the ground and dropped a powdery substance. She went inside, washed it off her face and arms, then went back out to play.
Over the years, Brindell has battled four types of cancer — breast, thyroid, skin and uterine.
"I feel betrayed," said Brindell, who is white. "How could they do this? We pointed our fingers during the Holocaust, and we do something like this?"
Martino-Taylor said she wasn't aware of any lawsuits filed by anyone affected by the military tests. She also said there have been no payouts "or even an apology" from the government to those affected.
The secret testing in St. Louis was exposed to Congress in 1994, prompting a demand for a health study. A committee of the National Research Council determined in 1997 that the testing did not expose residents to harmful levels of the chemical. But the committee said research was sparse and the finding relied on limited data from animal testing.
It also noted that high doses of cadmium over long periods of exposure could cause bone and kidney problems and lung cancer. The committee recommended that the Army conduct follow-up studies "to determine whether inhaled zinc cadmium sulfide breaks down into toxic cadmium compounds, which can be absorbed into the blood to produce toxicity in the lungs and other organs."
But it isn't clear if follow-up studies were ever performed. Martino-Taylor said she has gotten no answer from the Army and her research has turned up no additional studies. Foster, the Army spokesman, declined comment.
Martino-Taylor became involved years ago when a colleague who grew up in the targeted area wondered if the testing was the cause of her cancer. That same day, a second colleague confided to Martino-Taylor that she, too, lived in the test area and had cancer.
Martino-Taylor decided to research the testing for her doctoral thesis at the University of Missouri. She believes the St. Louis study was linked to the Manhattan Atomic Bomb Project and a small group of scientists from that project who were developing radiological weapons. A congressional study in 1993 confirmed radiological testing in Tennessee and parts of the West during the Cold War.
"There are strong lines of evidence that there was a radiological component to the St. Louis study," Martino-Taylor said.
Blunt, in his letter to the Army secretary, questioned whether radioactive testing was performed.
"The idea that thousands of Missourians were unwillingly exposed to harmful materials in order to determine their health effects is absolutely shocking," the senator wrote.
McCaskill agreed. "Given the nature of these experiments, it's not surprising that Missouri citizens still have questions and concerns about what exactly occurred and if there may have been any negative health effects," she said in a statement.
Martino-Taylor said a follow-up health study should be performed in St. Louis, but it must involve direct input from people who lived in the targeted areas.
"Their voices have not been heard," Martino-Taylor said.
It has been reported widely in the press that numerous Persian Gulf War veterans have become ill with with Gulf War Syndrome. During the war they were exposed to toxic chemicals, experimental drugs, insect repellents and depleted uranium or DU (Ref. 1). Uranium is known to be highly toxic both chemically and radiologically (Ref. 2). It has not yet been determined to what degree DU may have caused their illnesses and genetic defects in their children conceived and born after the war. Few veterans were aware that DU munitions were used until after they were exposed to uranium and became ill. Some were told about the gamma emission from DU but no one was told about the health dangers of inhaling fine particles of uranium oxide dust generated when a DU penetrator hits armor (Ref. 3). Eight days after the shooting stopped, a directive from Army Headquarters gave the first instructions to troops on how to treat radioactively contaminated vehicles (Ref. 4).
The main purpose of this paper is to develop a physical model of how easily many Gulf War veterans could have acquired dangerous quantities of DU in their bodies. To accomplish this we review the pyrophoric nature of uranium metal and its radioactivity. We show how readily uranium aerosol dust can be transported great distances by wind action in the atmosphere, pathways that DU aerosol particles can take into the body and become absorbed, and the tonnage of DU munitions fired during the Gulf War. This information is used to construct a contamination model that explains how large numbers of soldiers very likely became contaminated on the battlefields in Kuwait and Iraq. We show how the U.S. military views the safety of DU munitions, and we close by mentioning some of the known exposures of U.S. soldiers to DU and noting the high percentage of severe birth defects in children conceived and born in many families of Gulf War veterans. ..
Interview - Dennis Kyne - Depleted Uranium (DU)
"..A sea of ancient water tainted by the Cold War is creeping deep under the volcanic peaks, dry lake beds and pinyon pine forests covering a vast tract of Nevada.
Over 41 years, the federal government detonated 921 nuclear warheads underground at the Nevada Test Site, 75 miles northeast of Las Vegas. Each explosion deposited a toxic load of radioactivity into the ground and, in some cases, directly into aquifers...
"GENEVA (AP) — Scientists working at the world's biggest atom smasher plan to announce Wednesday that they have gathered enough evidence to show that the long-sought "God particle" answering fundamental questions about the universe almost certainly does exist.
But after decades of work and billions of dollars spent, researchers at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, aren't quite ready to say they've "discovered" the particle.
Chemtrails all around the world
History Channel Documentary Validates Chemtrails and Weather Warfare Airs July25 4pm
Raw Video: Moment of Explosion at Fukushima Petrochemical Complex on Plant- 2011.03.12
"Fukushima Japan Nuclear Reactor Explosion White Smoke + Explosion Japan At Nuclear Plant
Japan's quake-stricken nuclear power plant Fukushima No.1 "may be experiencing nuclear meltdown" amid signs that radioactive Cesium has been detected near the plant.
The Fukushima No.1, which is located some 250 kilometers (160 miles) northeast of the Japanese capital, Tokyo, "may be experiencing nuclear meltdown," Kyodo and Jiji news reported on Saturday.
Reports also say that Cesium has been detected near Fukushima nuclear plant, following warnings that there could be a small radiation leak from the facility.
Meanwhile, residents within three kilometres of the plant were ordered to leave their homes.
The government is holding a crisis meeting to discuss the situation at the two nuclear power plants.
On Friday afternoon, a magnitude 8.9 earthquake erupted, 15 miles (24 kilometers) down, off the northeast coast of Japan's main island, which unleashed a 23-foot (7-meter) tsunami and was followed by more than 50 aftershocks for hours.
Japanese officials have warned that there could be a small radiation leak from the Fukushima nuclear plant, which was shut down after its cooling system was knocked out in the wake of Friday's earthquake.
Officials say radiation 1,000 times above normal has been detected in the control room of the nuclear plant, adding that there is no immediate health hazard yet, as levels outside the facility's gates were only eight times above normal.
Tokyo Electric Power stated that some radioactive vapor at the Fukushima No. 1 and No. 2 plants, both located about 250 kilometers (160 miles) northeast of Tokyo, have been released in order to relieve building reactor pressure.
Meanwhile, large-scale relief efforts are underway in disaster-hit areas. Japan's military has mobilized thousands of troops, hundreds of planes and dozens of ships."
"(CNN) -- An explosion at an earthquake-struck nuclear plant was not caused by damage to the nuclear reactor but by a pumping system that failed as crews tried to bring the reactor's temperature down, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said Saturday.
Workers at the Fukushima Daiichi plant have begun flooding the reactor containment structure with sea water to bring the reactor's temperature down to safe levels, he said. The effort is expected to take two days.
Radiation levels have fallen since the explosion and there is no immediate danger, Edano said. But authorities were nevertheless expanding the evacuation to include a radius of 20 kilometers (about 12.5 miles) around the plant. The evacuation previously reached out to 10 kilometers.
The government also expanded the evacuation radius for the Fukushima Daini plant to 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), according to the International Atomic Energy Agency. The evacuation radius had been 3 kilometers. It was not immediately clear what led to the order.
Earlier Saturday, Tokyo Electric Power Company reported that, while cooling systems at three of four reactors had failed after the quake, water levels in the Daini plant's reactors were stable and monitors had not detected elevated radiation levels at the plant's boundaries.
More than 83,000 people live within 10 kilometers of the two plants, according to Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency.
If the reactors are not kept cool, the fuel rods inside the reactor can melt down, which can cause enormous damage to the reactor or, in a worse case, cause the release of radioactive material into the air or water, raising the threat of cancer and other health problems, experts say.
The government was also preparing to distribute iodine tablets to residents, the IAEA said. Iodine is commonly prescribed as to help prevent the thyroid gland from taking in too much radioactivity, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website.
The explosion about 3:30 p.m. Saturday sent white smoke rising above the plant a day after a massive earthquake and tsunami crippled cooling systems at the plant in northeastern Japan. Four workers were injured in the blast.
The walls of a concrete building surrounding the reactor container collapsed, but the reactor and its containment system were not damaged in the explosion, Edano said.
A spokesman for Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Agency earlier said atomic material had seeped out of one of the five nuclear reactors at the Daiichi plant, located about 160 miles (260 kilometers) north of Tokyo.
Japan's nuclear agency said there was a strong possibility that the radioactive cesium the monitors detected was from the melting of a fuel rod at the plant, adding that engineers were continuing to cool the fuel rods by pumping water around them. Cesium is a byproduct of the nuclear fission process that occurs in nuclear plants.
Before Edano's announcement, Malcolm Grimston, associate fellow for energy, environment and development at London's Chatham House, said the explosion indicated that "it's clearly a serious situation, but that in itself does not necessarily mean major (nuclear) contamination."
"This is a situation that has the potential for a nuclear catastrophe. It's basically a race against time, because what has happened is that plant operators have not been able to cool down the core of at least two reactors," said Robert Alvarez, a senior scholar at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington.
The International Atomic Energy Agency said Friday on its website that the quake and tsunami knocked out a Daiichi reactor's off-site power source, which is used to cool down the radioactive material inside. Then, the tsunami waves disabled the backup source -- diesel generators -- and authorities were working to get these operating.
On Saturday, Japanese nuclear authorities said the cooling system had also failed at three of the four reactors at the Fukushima Daini plant.
Authorities also ordered the release of valves at affected reactors at the two plants Saturday -- a move that experts said was likely done to release growing pressure inside as high temperatures caused water to boil and produce excess steam.
James Acton, a physicist who examined the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant after a 2007 earthquake, told CNN that releasing the valves at the two power plants might spew a relatively small amount of radioactive material into the atmosphere.
"The big problem is if it can't cool and the (reactors') core starts to melt -- then you have the possibility of a greater release of radioactivity into the environment," Acton said. If that happens, "there's a possibility of cancer in the long term -- that's the main hazard here."
The evacuations notwithstanding, the nuclear safety agency asserted Saturday that the radiation at the plants does not pose an immediate threat to nearby residents' health, the Kyodo News Agency said.
Janie Eudy told CNN that her 52-year-old husband, Joe, was working at the Daiichi plant and was injured by falling and shattering glass when the quake struck. As he and others were planning to evacuate, at their managers' orders, the tsunami waves struck and washed buildings from the nearby town past the plant.
"To me, it sounded like hell on earth," she said, adding her husband -- a native of Pineville, Louisiana -- ultimately escaped.
Utility officials reported Saturday that more than 3 million households were without power, NHK reported, and that power shortages may occur due to damage at the company's facilities.
"We kindly ask our customers to cooperate with us in reducing usage of power," the company said."
"..About 170,000 people have been ordered to evacuate the area covering a radius of 20km around the plant.
Thousands of people have been taken to emergency shelters along the northeastern coast as strong aftershocks continue to shake Japan's main island.
The Japanese prime minister said the current situation is the worst disaster the country has faced since the Second World War - in which more than 200,000 people were killed in the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States....
Chernobyl 'much worse'
New footage shows the moment the massive tsunami slammed into Japan's coastline
The quake and tsunami damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant, which lost their cooling functions necessary to keep the fuel rods working properly.
Dr Ilham al-Qaradawi, a professor of nuclear physics at Qatar University, told Al Jazeera that even if a meltdown occurs, it might not necessarily become dangerous.
"It depends on how this is going to be contained by the containment of the reactor," she said.
"It could be that the reactor core would be completely damaged but there is no releases of radioactivity and that's the important part..
"Chernobyl is a much worse situation than this case. Despite the slight release of radiation I think these reactors have proven to be very good reactors ... so far in terms of radiation, contamination has not been very pronounced."
Operators released slightly radioactive air from Unit 3 on Sunday, while injecting water into it as an effort to reduce pressure and temperature to save the reactor from a possible meltdown, Edano said.
A meltdown refers to a very serious collapse of a power plant's systems and its ability to manage temperatures. A complete meltdown would release uranium and dangerous byproducts into the environment that can pose serious health risks....
"...More than 180,000 people have evacuated the area, and up to 160 may have been exposed to radiation.
Four nuclear plants in northeastern Japan have reported damage, but the danger appeared to be greatest at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear complex, where one explosion occurred Saturday and a second was feared.
Nuclear Reactor Explained
"Added On March 14, 2011
Japan's NHK network explains nuclear reactors and how the systems failed during the earthquake and subsequent tsunami."
"..An explosion Tuesday morning at a Japanese nuclear plant damaged by the country's devastating earthquake and tsunami has raised new fears of a radiation leak, as the country struggles to respond to the mounting human disaster.
The Fukushima Dai-ichi facility's precarious state was underscored by the details trickling out in the wake of the blast at the Unit 2 reactor. It was the third explosion in four days at the nuclear plant, and the condition of the Unit 2 reactor is of greatest concern to authorities.
"The level seems very high, and there is still a very high risk of more radiation coming out," Prime Minister Naoto Kan said in a nationally televised statement.
Radiation has spread from the three reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant, Kan said, and he warned there are dangers of more leaks and told people living within 12 miles of the complex to evacuate and people within 19 miles to stay indoors to avoid radiation sickness.
A fire at a fourth reactor that was extinguished by Tuesday afternoon further escalated concerns, as Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said more radiation had been released.
"Sendai, Japan (CNN) -- Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said Tuesday the risk of further releases of radioactive material remains "very high" as crews struggle to contain an increasingly critical crisis at a damaged nuclear plant.
Radiation levels at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have increased to "levels that can impact human health," and anyone within a 30-kilometer radius of the plant should remain indoors, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said soon after Kan spoke.
Nearly all of the plant's staff -- some 800 people -- have left, Edano said. Just 50 remain to carry out crucial cooling work.
"There is still a very high risk of further radioactive material coming out," the prime minister said, calling on people to remain calm. "We are making every effort possible so that no further explosion or no further leakage ... would happen."
"Tokyo (CNN) -- A second fire was discovered Wednesday in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, the latest in a series of setbacks at the stricken plant that has heightened fears that the incidents could lead to widespread radiation contamination.
The fire followed an explosion Tuesday at the plant's No. 2 reactor and a fire in a storage pond used for spent nuclear fuel at the No. 4 reactor. Radiation levels at the plant increased to about 167 times the average dose during that fire, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency.
That dose quickly diminished with distance from the plant, and radiation fell back to levels where it posed no immediate public health threat, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said.
But the deteriorating situation and concerns about a potential shift in wind direction that could send radiation toward populated areas prompted authorities to warn people as far as 18.6 miles (30 kilometers) from the plant to stay inside.
"There is still a very high risk of further radioactive material coming out," Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, asking people to remain calm.
About 200,000 people living within a 12.4-mile radius of the plant already had been evacuated.
Authorities also banned flights over the area and evacuated most workers from the plant.
Those who remained behind continued a last-ditch effort to cool reactors with seawater to prevent a wider environmental and public health catastrophe.
High levels of radiation led the crew to abandon the plant control room Tuesday night, Kyodo News reported, citing plant owner Tokyo Electric Power Company.
"Their situation is not great," said David Brenner, director of the Center for Radiological Research at Columbia University. "It's pretty clear that they will be getting very high doses of radiation. There's certainly the potential for lethal doses of radiation. They know it, and I think you have to call these people heroes."
Troubles at the plant began shortly after the 9.0-magnitude earthquake that struck Friday off northeast Japan.
Although the plant's three functioning reactors shut down automatically when they detected the quake, the tsunami that followed swamped the diesel generators that provided backup power to the reactor cooling systems.
Crews eventually were able to restore backup power, but problems keeping the reactors cool eventually forced plant officials to take the drastic step of flooding them with seawater in a bid to lower the temperatures. Still, pressure buildups, problems with valves and even a failure to fill a generator's gas tank led to explosions and other problems with keeping the reactors under control.
Tuesday's incidents appeared to escalate the situation: Edano said the radiation releases from the explosion and fire were the first that appeared to pose a threat to human health, if only briefly.
Radiation levels had also spiked Monday, but quickly dropped, officials said.
Also Monday, an explosion in the building housing the plant's No. 3 reactor apparently damaged both a water-filled chamber at the base of the reactor and the reactor containment unit itself, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano told reporters Tuesday.
Damage to the core involved about 5% of the core's nuclear fuel, Amano said."
"Tokyo (CNN) -- Helicopters dumped water Thursday on and near the Nos. 3 and 4 units at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in the latest attempt to halt the nuclear accident that appeared to be spinning out of control. The helicopters belong to the nation's self-defense forces, public broadcaster NHK reported.
Initially, just a few drops were carried out before the operation was suspended. An NHK commentator said about 100 would be needed for the operation to succeed.
During the afternoon, engineers were planning to begin the process of restoring power to the stricken nuclear complex, a government official said. The complex lost its power Friday, when a 9.0 earthquake followed by a tsunami hammered northeastern Japan.
"Today, we are trying to restore the power supply using the power lines from outside," said the official with the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency. "This is one of the high-priority issues that we have to address."....
Tests on tap water in Fukushima city, 80 kilometers (50 miles) away, found radiation, though at levels not harmful to the human body, and later tests showed no radiation in the water, government officials said.....
"TOKYO (Reuters) – The wind near a quake-damaged nuclear complex in northeast Japan, which has released radiation into the atmosphere, will blow from the northwest and out into the Pacific Ocean on Wednesday, a weather official said.
The wind speed will get stronger in the afternoon, blowing as fast as at 12 meters (39.4 ft) per second, said the official at the Japan Meteorological Agency in Fukushima prefecture where the plant is based.
The Fukushima Daiichi plant, run by Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO), is about 240 km (150 miles) north of Tokyo on the country's northeast coast.
Fire broke out at the plant on Wednesday, prompting some people to flee the capital which has suffered low levels of radiation, but not enough to damage health, officials say.....
Hundreds of vehicles sped out of the shadow of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant yesterday.
Those inside the cars and trucks were fleeing for their lives, terrified about what might happen next and reluctant to believe anything their government was telling them.
'We knew it was close by, but they told us over and over again that it was safe, safe, safe,’ said 70-year-old evacuee Fumiko Watanabe.
'People are worried that we aren’t being told how dangerous this stuff is and what really happened.'
Elderly Facility in Path of Radiation
"Added On March 16, 2011
An elderly facility close to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is unable to move their residents."
"....Prayers are being lifted up for churches and missionaries within the evacuation zone, currently assessing the best way to respond to the disaster or whether they should evacuate themselves.
U.S. officials have raised fresh concerns about the spent fuel in reactor 4, a worry shared by Dr. Kaku. “Hollywood likes to focus on the meltdown – the melted core and the exposed uranium. But old fuel is actually more dangerous than the meltdown because there is more radiation in the unguarded spent fuel pond than in the reactor itself,” he said.
The Japanese nuclear crisis has the potential to be larger than Chernobyl, because there are hundreds of tons of nuclear waste stored in the reactor cores that could be lofted into the environment. “We have cracks in the containment vessels of reactors one, two, and three. If those cracks grow, or if there is an explosion, this could be something beyond Chernobyl, because of the fission products stored in the reactor,” Dr. Kaku said.
MORE: Click here. ...
"Tokyo (CNN) -- Japanese authorities took new steps Saturday to tackle the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant but new concerns emerged about the impact that already emitted radioactive materials have had on the food supply.
Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano told reporters that abnormally high levels of radiation had been detected in some, but not all tested samples of spinach and milk from the Japanese prefectures of Fukushima and Ibaraki.
The measurements exceeded the limits stipulated by Japan's food safety law, though Edano insisted they weren't extremely high.
If a person consumed these products continuously for a year, he said, they'd take in the same amount of radiation as a single CT scan. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration equates that to roughly 7 millisieverts, over double what a person in an industrialized country naturally gets in a year.
Authorities are mulling regulating movement of agricultural products from within the vicinity of the plant, some 240 kilometers(150 miles) north of Tokyo, as well as getting more data for analysis under Japan's health ministry's watch, Edano said....
Outside of the nuclear facility on the island of Honshu in northeast Japan, there have been few indications of any immediate, dangerous fall-out from the crisis so far. One plus is that, since the crisis began, a northwesterly wind has likely blown most emitted radiation out to sea.
Beyond Saturday's food safety announcement, airborne radiation levels around Japan have shown no signs of spiking drastically, according to measurements posted online Saturday by the nation's education and science ministry.
While most readings showed detectable if relatively small amounts of radiation, even the two top in Mito (in Ibaraki prefecture) and Utsonomiya (in Toshigi prefecture) are well below what's considered dangerous to humans and had fallen in recent days....
Winds Forecasted to Shift Over Japan
"Added On March 19, 2011
CNN's Chad Myers shares the latest forecast for winds over the eastern coast of Japan where a nuclear plant is located."
"Japan (MNN) ― Countries are beginning to ban imports from Japan, fearing radiation has contaminated the food supply in that nation. The United States, China, Australia, and a few other nations are now restricting some food imports from Japan.
Despite the radiation fears, the International Director of SEND International Warren Janzen is heading there to do his own assessment. He says they'll be meeting with SEND leadership and leadership with the Japan Evangelical Church Association. "We're going to be talking about what we want the Japanese people to be saying about SEND two years from now. And then, how do we get there? We're going to be networking with the Japan Evangelical Church Association leadership to hear what they want us to do -- how they want us to be involved."
The radioactive threat is a concern. Janzen says, "[An unsubstantiated] report said the water in Tokyo was tainted. So there was a run on [bottled] water." The needs are great in and around the tsunami-affected area and radioactive sites.
SEND personnel are already help with relief needs. Janzen says, "We've got the passes to be on the highway. We're struggling to find gas all the time to fill the vans to take the supplies up [north].
There is good news from the Japanese national church. Janzen says, "Of the 12 churches that are members of our association, none of them were completely wiped out. Some of them had severe damage, but all of them are still there. Their people are scattered. A lot of their homes were destroyed. But the churches and the pastors are now in communications."
Janzen says SEND personnel are already delivering aid to the north. And they're driving near the radiation evacuation zone to do it.
While many Japanese have nationalistic optimism, Janzen says it is coupled with pessimism. "There's a pessimism about why this has happened. Why us? Why now? Why were there so many people lost?"
When they realize they don't have any answers, Janzen says, "That's when we need to be there in order to answer those questions and point them to the hope that's in Jesus."
Pray that people will come to Christ as they help in Jesus' name. Funding is needed to help do more. Click here to support them. "
Fukushima Fears: Nuclear disaster man-made?
"Another powerful aftershock has struck Japan. This follows last week's double hit which killed over 7,000 people and crippled the Fukushima nuclear plant, raising fears of a meltdown. RT's Ivor Bennett is across developments in Japan."
*see GreedGoodnewsEverybody.com Science: Environmental-Oil-BP Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico
'NEW YORK (ANS) -- After the hands and feet of emergency workers were burned by highly radioactive water and public apologies for the release of false information, signs still point to the possibility of a crack in the reactor core of unit three at the troubled nuclear plant in Japan.
"This is the nightmare that haunts every physicist – a crack in the vessel," Physicist Michio Kaku PhD, a professor at City University of New York, said on Good Morning America. A crack in the vessel implies core damage, he noted.
On March 25, Tepco officials apologized for allowing workers into the troubled nuclear plant without adequate footwear. Two days later they apologized for releasing incorrect data on radiation levels. Due to Tepco’s slow and seemingly inept response to the crisis, and opaque or conflicting communications, Dr. Kaku believes the time is overdue for an overhaul of the crisis management team.
"If I had the ear of the Prime Minister, instead of accepting their apology, I would remove them entirely from leadership of this crisis and bring in a top team of the world’s best nuclear physicists and engineers with the authority to call up the Japanese military,” Dr. Kaku said. “Only the military, led by an international team of top scientists, using Tepco as a consultant, can tame this monster."
The use of saltwater to cool the reactor cores seems to have produced an undesirable side effect. “They were late in putting in saltwater, because saltwater is corrosive and they knew it would damage their reactors,” Dr. Kaku said. “It was never meant to be a long-term solution. The use of saltwater is a Band-Aid."
"You have to remove the saltwater because it contains corrosive salt, which gums up the rods, raises temperatures, and could cause a hydrogen gas explosion. Once again they are behind the eight ball," Dr. Kaku lamented.
The United States announced on March 25 it would dispatch a naval vessel filled with fresh water from the Yokosuka naval base to attempt to reverse this quandary.
Still, the dreadful potential of a Chernobyl-style release of radiation causes Dr. Kaku the greatest concern. “The most dangerous nightmare that haunts the dreams of every nuclear physicist is a huge crack in the vessel that actually contains the uranium rods itself. It means there is core damage. It means there could be a steam explosion or hydrogen gas explosion that blows the vessel apart,” he noted.
"That's what happened at Chernobyl. That’s why you had an uncontrolled release of 25 percent of the core into the air over Kiev....more...
"..The nuclear crisis has complicated the government's ability to address the humanitarian situation facing hundreds of thousands left homeless by the twin disasters. The official number of dead surpassed 11,000 on Tuesday, police said, and the final figure is expected to top 18,000....
The discovery of plutonium, released from fuel rods only when temperatures are extremely high, confirms the severity of the damage, Nishiyama said.
Of the five soil samples showing plutonium, two appeared to be coming from leaking reactors while the rest were likely the result of years of nuclear tests that left trace amounts of plutonium in many places around the world, TEPCO said.
Plutonium is a heavy element that doesn't readily combine with other elements, so it is less likely to spread than some of the lighter, more volatile radioactive materials detected around the site, such as the radioactive forms of cesium and iodine.
"The relative toxicity of plutonium is much higher than that of iodine or cesium but the chance of people getting a dose of it is much lower," says Robert Henkin, professor emeritus of radiology at Loyola University's Stritch School of Medicine. "Plutonium just sits there and is a nasty actor."
When plutonium decays, it emits what is known as an alpha particle, a relatively big particle that carries a lot of energy. When an alpha particle hits body tissue, it can damage the DNA of a cell and lead to a cancer-causing mutation.
Plutonium also breaks down very slowly, so it remains dangerously radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years.
"If you inhale it, it's there and it stays there forever," said Alan Lockwood, a professor of Neurology and Nuclear Medicine at the University at Buffalo and a member of the board of directors of Physicians for Social Responsibility, an advocacy group. "
"The impact of the radioactive material on sea life could be catastrophic as over 11, 500 tons of contaminated water is now being intentionally released into the Pacific ocean by workers at the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in a last ditch desperate effort to clean out the area.
Meanwhile, local officials have roundly condemned the Japanese government’s response to the crisis as workers have been scrambling to plug cracks in a reactor pit using anything they can find, including bits of shredded newspaper, sawdust and super glue.
Highly radioactive water is flowing from the pit into the ocean, with the latest figures confirming radiation levels of contaminated seawater at 4,000 times above the safety limit....
"Tokyo (CNN) -- Japan began dumping thousands of tons of radioactive water into the Pacific Ocean on Monday, an emergency move officials said was needed to curtail a worse leak from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
In all, about 11,500 tons of radioactive water that has collected at the nuclear facility will be dumped into the sea, officials said Monday, as workers also try to deal with a crack that has been a conduit for contamination.
The radiation levels were highest in the water that was being drained from reactor No. 6, the officials said. ...
"Tokyo (CNN) -- Japanese authorities Tuesday "provisionally" declared the country's nuclear accident a level-7 event on the international scale for nuclear disasters -- the highest level -- putting it on par with the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.
Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency announced the new level Tuesday morning. It had previously been at 5.
Regulators have determined the amount of radioactive iodine released by the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant was at least 15 times the volume needed to reach the top of the International Nuclear Event Scale, the agency said. That figure is still about 10 percent of the amount released at Chernobyl, they said.
The amount of radioactive Cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years, is about one-seventh the amount released at Chernobyl, according to the agency.
Japan's nuclear concerns explained
Hidehiko Nishiyama, the safety agency's chief spokesman, explained the final level won't be set until the disaster is over and a more detailed investigation has been conducted.
Tetsunari Iida, a former nuclear engineer-turned-industry critic, told CNN the declaration has no immediate practical impact on the crisis. It is a sign, however, that Japanese regulators have rethought their earlier assessments of the disaster, said Iida, who now runs an alternative energy think-tank in Tokyo.
According to the scale, a level 5 equates to the likelihood of a release of radioactive material, several deaths from radiation and severe damage to a reactor core....
Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said the municipalities are likely to see long-term radiation levels that exceed international safety standards, and he warned that the month-old crisis at Fukushima Daiichi is not yet over.
"Things are relatively more stable, and things are stabilizing," he said. "However, we need to be ready for the possibility that things may turn for the worse."
And about an hour after he spoke, a fresh earthquake rattled the country, forcing workers to evacuate the plant and knocking out power to the three damaged reactors for about 40 minutes, the plant's owner, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, reported. The magnitude 6.6 tremor came a month to the day after the magnitude 9 quake and tsunami that knocked out the plant's cooling systems, and followed a magnitude 7.1 aftershock Thursday night.
Neither the 6.6 quake nor any of the smaller ones that rippled across the region in its wake inflicted any more damage to the plant, Tokyo Electric officials told reporters......
""Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged, for the LORD your God will be with you wherever you go."-Joshua 1 (Afraid?)
"MINNEAPOLIS (AP) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says it has detected slightly elevated levels of radiation in rainwater in St. Paul. The EPA says elevated levels were expected after the March 11 tsunami in Japan and are not dangerous.
The EPA says Sunday the radiation levels are far below the levels of a public health concern.
EPA scientists routinely test precipitation samples from more than 30 sites in the United States. The agency announced Saturday that samples from California and Idaho also showed slightly elevated levels of radiation.
Radioactive substances exist in the air around us, the food we eat, and the water we drink. The mere presence of detectable radioactivity - or even somewhat elevated levels - does not necessarily imply any health risk.
(Copyright 2011 by The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.)"
SAN FRANCISCO – More radiation monitors are being deployed in the western United States and Pacific territories, as officials seek to mollify public concern over exposure from damaged nuclear plants in Japan, federal environmental regulators said.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency already monitors radiation throughout the area as part of its RadNet system, which measures levels in air, drinking water, milk and rain.
The additional monitors are being deployed in response to the ongoing nuclear crisis in Japan, where emergency workers are attempting to cool overheated reactors damaged by last week's magnitude-9.0 earthquake and tsunami.
Officials with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission said they do not expect harmful radiation levels to reach the U.S. from Japan....
Obama: U.S. No Danger of Radiation
"Added On March 17, 2011
The president outlines America's support for the Japanese and urges Americans in Japan to stay abreast of developments."
"Based on radar over the Pacific from The Weather Channel, a massive storm is headed directly for the U.S. and Canadian West Coast, which broke off from a larger formation (shown below) that was more than 2000 miles wide on March 17, 2011. The formation passed over Japan during its nuclear plant’s meltdown, and may well match predictions that radiation could reach the West Coast.
This screenshot taken at 5:39 PM EDT, March 18, 2011 shows a massive storm in the Pacific Ocean headed directly for the West Coast. Obviously, the radar image loop is continuously updated– check here for most recent activity....
"Colorado and Oregon have joined several other Western states in reporting trace amounts of radioactive particles that have likely drifted about 5,000 miles from a quake and tsunami-damaged nuclear power plant in Japan, officials say.
But, on a portion of its website dedicated to tracking such radiation, the Environmental Protection Agency noted Wednesday that these and other readings "show typical fluctuation in background radiation levels" and -- thus far -- "are far below levels of concern."
Sampling from a monitor in Colorado -- part of a national network of stations on the lookout for radioactivity -- detected miniscule amounts of iodine-131, a radioactive form of iodine, the state's public health and environmental department said Wednesday in a press release."
"..RENO -- Minuscule amounts of radiation from Japan's damaged nuclear plant have reached Las Vegas and Germany's Black forest, but scientists say it poses no health risk.
Extremely small amounts of the radioactive isotopes iodine-131 and zenon-133 reached a monitoring station by the city's Atomic Testing Museum this week, said Ted Hartwell, manager of the Desert Research Institute's Community Environmental Monitoring Program.
Hartwell said he's certain the isotopes came from Japan because they're not usually detected in Nevada. But he said the readings were far below levels that could pose any health risks.
"Unless you have an accident like this (in Japan) you wouldn't expect to see this. No doubt it's from Japan," Hartwell said.
Minuscule amounts of radiation from Japan have been reported elsewhere in the West, including California, Colorado, Hawaii and Washington. ..
"Suggesting that levels of radiation leaks from the stricken Fukushima plant are being grossly underreported by Japanese authorities, a Swedish government agency told Reuters today that not only will the radiation reach North America, but it will subsequently cover the entire northern hemisphere.
"Lars-Erik De Geer, research director at the Swedish Defense Research Institute, a government agency, was citing data from a network of international monitoring stations established to detect signs of any nuclear weapons tests,” reports Reuters.
"Stressing that the levels were not dangerous for people, he predicted the particles would continue across the Atlantic and eventually also reach Europe.”
De Geer said he was "convinced it would eventually be detected over the whole northern hemisphere," according to the report, adding that radioactive particles would “eventually also come here,” referring to Europe.....
"NEW YORK, New York, – Nearly one million people around the world died from exposure to radiation released by the 1986 nuclear disaster at the Chernobyl reactor, finds a new book from the New York Academy of Sciences published today on the 24th anniversary of the meltdown at the Soviet facility.
The book, "Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment,” was compiled by authors Alexey Yablokov of the Center for Russian Environmental Policy in Moscow, and Vassily Nesterenko and Alexey Nesterenko of the Institute of Radiation Safety, in Minsk, Belarus.
The authors examined more than 5,000 published articles and studies, most written in Slavic languages and never before available in English.
The authors said, “For the past 23 years, it has been clear that there is a danger greater than nuclear weapons concealed within nuclear power. Emissions from this one reactor exceeded a hundred-fold the radioactive contamination of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.”
"No citizen of any country can be assured that he or she can be protected from radioactive contamination. One nuclear reactor can pollute half the globe,” they said. "Chernobyl fallout covers the entire Northern Hemisphere."...
"Despite its apparent harmlessness at current levels, the very fact that such radiation is currently smothering the entire United States completely contradicts assurances made last week by President Barack Obama that the radiation from Fukushima was set to dissipate before it reached Hawaii, never mind the mainland U.S.
"Obama told KDKA-TV of Pittsburgh that experts have assured him that a nuclear release from Japan will dissipate by the time it gets to Hawaii, much less the U.S. mainland," USA Today reported on March 15. Just days later, reports emerged of small amounts of radiation hitting California.
As we have documented, given the habitual nature of both the Japanese and the U.S. government in deceiving people as to the safety of the air we breathe, the fact that distrust has reigned amidst panic buying of potassium iodide and geiger counters is completely understandable.
Radiation from Fukushima has now been detected as far north-east as British Columbia in Canada and Iceland in Scandinavia, with mainland Europe set to be hit over the coming 24 hours."
URGENT - USA / Europe - Radiation and Jetstream FORECAST UPDATE - march 27, 2011
"Plumes of Cesium 137, Iodine 131, and Xenon 133, have reached the United States as of March 23, 2011.
Higher plumes, reaching 5000 meters (15,000 feet) are forecast to reach Portugal, Spain, and central europe.
All animations are from professional forecasting services. Links are below.
"Japan (MNN) ― Missionaries are being forced to relocate due to radiation threats from damaged power plants in Japan.
While the U.N.'s nuclear agency says there have been positive developments in stabilizing damaged nuclear reactors, the situation remains serious. As a result, all International Mission Board personnel north and east of Nagoya must move to southern Japan temporarily.
Missionaries are grieving over the relocation during such a dire time, not wanting to abandon those they have ministered to.
Mark and Wendy Hoshizaki have a ministry to the homeless. The couple is fearful of what may become of those they have come to know. Mark says food shortages that resulted from a recent 9.0 earthquake are severely affecting the general public, which means there is even less for the homeless.
"It's horrible. We are leaving," Wendy says. "They are even worse off because the homeless are always forgotten.
The Hoshizakis spent their last hours in the region doling out the last of their food to the homeless.
Another IMB couple spent their last day baptizing a city councilman and his wife. Mark and Mie Busby are having an equally difficult time leaving their home, but they admit that there is no real way for them to get to disaster victims. Government permits are required to be in the tsunami and quake areas, and no one is allowed near the nuclear plant, which is rumored to have slightly poisoned nearby plants and water.
The relocated missionaries will not be gone for good. They hope to be back as soon as they are able. For now, their safety will be more secure elsewhere.
Pray for these devastated, faithful believers. Pray that God would take away their anxiety regarding the ministries they have left behind, and that the fruits of their labor would continue grow even without them there. Pray that this would be an opportunity to be a witness for Christ elsewhere in the country. "
"SALT LAKE CITY (AP) — Radioactive contamination from the Fukushima power plant disaster has been detected as far as almost 400 miles off Japan in the Pacific Ocean, with water showing readings of up to 1,000 times more than prior levels, scientists reported Tuesday.
But those results for the substance cesium-137 are far below the levels that are generally considered harmful, either to marine animals or people who eat seafood, said Ken Buesseler of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts.
He spoke Tuesday in Salt Lake City at the annual Ocean Sciences Meeting, attended by more than 4,000 researchers this week.
The results are for water samples taken in June, about three months after the power plant disaster, Buesseler said. In addition to thousands of water samples, researchers also sampled fish and plankton and found cesium-137 levels well below the legal health limit.
"We're not over the hump" yet in terms of radioactive contamination of the ocean because of continued leakage from the plant, Buesseler said in an interview before Tuesday's talk. He was chief scientist for the cruise that collected the data.
The ship sampled water from about 20 miles to about 400 miles off the coast east of the Fukushima plant. Concentrations of cesium-137 throughout that range were 10 to 1,000 times normal, but they were about one-tenth the levels generally considered harmful, Buesseler said.
Cesium-137 wasn't the only radioactive substance released from the plant, but it's of particular concern because of its long persistence in the environment. Its half-life is 30 years.
The highest readings last June were not always from locations closest to the Fukushima plant, Buesseler said. That's because swirling ocean currents formed concentrations of the material, he said.
Most of the cesium-137 detected during the voyage probably entered the ocean from water discharges, rather than atmospheric fallout, he added.
Hartmut Nies, of the International Atomic Energy Agency, said Buesseler's findings were not surprising, given the vastness of the ocean and its ability to absorb and dilute materials.
"This is what we predicted," Nies said after Buesseler presented his research.
Nies said the water's cesium-137 concentration has been so diluted that just 20 miles offshore, "if it was not seawater, you could drink it without any problems."
"This is good news," he said, adding that scientists expect levels to continue to decrease over time.
"We still don't have a full picture," Nies said, "but we can expect the situation will not become worse."
Ritter reported from New York.
AP Science Writer Malcolm Ritter can be followed at http://www.twitter.com/malcolmritter"
"The hunt is on for the source of low level radiation detected in the atmosphere "across Europe" over the past several days, nuclear officials said today.
Trace amounts of iodine-131, a type of radiation created during the operation of nuclear reactors or in the detonation of a nuclear weapon, were detected by the Czech Republic's State Office for Nuclear Safety starting two weeks ago. After the group reported its findings to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Agency released a statement today revealing similar detections had been made "in other locations across Europe."
The IAEA said the current levels of iodine-131 are not high enough to warrant a public health risk, but the agency still does not know the origin of the apparent leak and an official with the agency would not say where exactly it has been detected outside the Czech Republic.
The IAEA said it does not believe the radiation was left over from the nuclear disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi plant in March and the Czech Republic's State Office for Nuclear Safety could only say the source was "likely outside the territory of the [Czech] Republic."
"Anywhere spent nuclear fuel is handled, there is a chance that... iodine-131 will escape into the environment," the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says on its website.
According to the EPA, iodine-131 can get into the environment after leaking from cracked fuel rods in nuclear plants and, when ingested in higher doses, can lead to thyroid problems. This particular type of radiation is relatively short-lived, with an estimated half-life of about eight days....
The Chernobyl disaster - the severe days
Chernobyl disaster incident PART 1
"Chernobyl incident with a Garrysmod twist"
Chernobyl disaster incident PART 7
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "...was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986, at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union). It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and is the only level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
The disaster began on 26 April 1986, at reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, near the town of Pripyat in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, during a systems test. A sudden power output surge took place, and when an attempt was made for emergency shutdown, a more extreme spike in power output occurred which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. This event exposed the graphite moderator components of the reactor to air and they ignited; the resulting fire sent a plume of radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe. Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia had to be evacuated, with over 336,000 people resettled. According to official post-Soviet data, about 60% of the fallout landed in Belarus.
Despite the accident, Ukraine continued to operate the remaining reactors at Chernobyl for many years. The last reactor at the site was closed down in 2000, 14 years after the accident.
The accident raised concerns about the safety of the Soviet nuclear power industry as well as nuclear power in general, slowing its expansion for a number of years while forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive about its procedures.[notes 1]
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident. Fifty deaths, all among the reactor staff and emergency workers, are directly attributed to the accident. It is estimated that there may ultimately be a total of 4,000 deaths attributable to the accident, due to increased cancer risk...
Chernobyl: 23 years later
"Twenty-three years ago on April 26, 1986 at 1:23 in the morning, the number four reactor at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl suffered an unstoppable chain reaction, causing the worst man-made disaster in history."
Children of Chernobyl - 49min. documentary
"If you're worried about a cloud of radiation reaching California from Japan, don't be. And if you're among those who ran out to buy potassium iodide pills, it's fine to store them, just don't take them.
Ventura County pharmacies have reported numerous requests for potassium iodide, which can be used to protect the vulnerable thyroid gland from radiation.
Pharmacies don't generally stock a lot of potassium iodide, because it's not used for much except to help a chronic cough, so they were caught off guard when they began getting calls about the pill.
Fred Leivo, the head pharmacist at Ojai Village Pharmacy, had three bottles of kelp tablets, which contain a naturally occurring form of iodine, but they were snapped up quickly. He began to call around.
"Rainbow Bridge next door is out of them, all of the suppliers I've contacted are out of them," Leivo said. "I'm not sure the demand is logical. I hope people don't overdo it in their zealous fear."
The pills are unnecessary and could be harmful, according to Dr. Robert Levin, Ventura County's top public health officer.
Do you have your radiation pills?
What is the big deal about Potassium Iodate (KIO3) or Potassium Iodide (KI)? You know it is for nuclear preparedness, but just why is it so important?
Of all the radioactive isotopes and radioactive particles that can come from a nuclear reaction, radioactive iodine 131 (I-131) poisoning is one of the most lethal. The good news is that damage to the thyroid from exposure to I-131 can be prevented. Keep in mind these facts about your thyroid:
"How Potassium Iodide Works
Certain forms of iodine help your thyroid gland work right. Most people get the iodine they need from foods like iodized salt or fish. The thyroid can "store" or hold only a certain amount of iodine.
In a radiation emergency, radioactive iodine may be released in the air. This material may be breathed or swallowed. It may enter the thyroid gland and damage it. The damage would probably not show itself for years. Children are most likely to have thyroid damage.
If you take potassium iodide, it will fill up your thyroid gland. This reduces the chance that harmful radioactive iodine will enter the thyroid gland."